He further elucidated how the 4 Polish ' Army created by the Soviets
was in the hands of the latter. " The problem of a corps of officers/*
said Zymierski, " fit to answer the requirements of our growing army, is
one of considerable difficulty. And so, to form a new Polish Army, we
applied to the U.S.S.R. for help. Our powerful and friendly ally gave
us many officers of Polish and others of Russian nationality . . . " The
friendly ally had, in fact, given so many of these officers that every position
from the top of the scale to a Commander of a battalion was a Russian.
Zymierski, now, like Tito, promoted to the rank of Marshal remained
the figurative C.-in-C, but the real Commander of these forces was., it
seemed, his deputy for political affairs, first the c politnik' General
Zawadski, and afterwards Spychalski, both from the troops of the N.K.V.D.
What, or whose interests, were served by this Soviet-Polish Force, can be
judged by the fact that, from twenty-six high-ranking Generals enumerated
in the Soviet Press as having been decorated by Bierut in May to mark
the end of a victorious war, only three were Poles, one known to have been
a sous-officer in the Polish Army before the war. The above-mentioned
Poles were on the bottom rungs of the military ladder—the other men to
receive decorations had come from the ranks of the N.K.V.D, or the Red
Army, and promoted from Majors or Captains when they took up service
in the Soviet-Polish Army.
The subject of the social education of the soldier was given the closest
attention and a special Board of Political Education was set up. Already
by May, 1944, the Presidium of the Union of Patriots had stated that:—
" Tremendous political work had been done, resulting in the compact-
ness, deep patriotism and genuine democratic spirit in the Polish Army
in the U.S.S.R."
Zymierski, in his speech, emphasised how, " thanks to the Communists
in the positions of political officers in the Army, the Polish soldier was
now more conscious of his duties towards the nation." " He is taught,"
reported New York Times Moscow correspondent from Lublin,cc that the
Polish Government in London did not want to wage war actively with
the Germans and that its agents preferred the collaboration with the Nazis
to collaboration with the Soviet Union."
Moscow hailed the c Lublin Committee' as the Polish Government in
the typical Soviet manner. Pravda wrote, and London's Soviet War News
" The transformation of the National Liberation Committee into a Pro-
visional Polish Government has struck yet another heavy blow against
Hitlerite Germany and her flunkeys. First among these is the emigre
clique of Polish reactionaries which pretends to figure as the Polish Govern-
ment. Political adventurers, whom the Polish people and international
public opinion hold responsible for Poland's national calamities, have tried
in vain to divert the Polish people from the correct path . . .
" While the Polish people were straining their forces, making their con-
tribution to the common cause of the United Nations, the Polish emigre
Government devoted all its efforts to criminal political intrigues under-